Rome’s last stand in Egypt – Battle of Heliopolis, 640 AD – Arab conquest of Egypt


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📢 Narrated by David McCallion

🎼 Music:
Instinct – Bensound
Impact Allegretto – Kevin MacLeod
Crypto – Kevin MacLeod
Epidemic Sound

📚 Primary sources:
Al Baladhuri, The Origins of the Islamic State, translated by Philip K. Hittil, Vols. II (New York: Columbia University, 1916).
History of the Patriarchs, Severus ibn al Muqaffaʿ, Alexandrinische Patriarchengeschichte von S. Marcus bis Michael I 61-767, nach der ältesten 1266 geschriebenen Hamburger Handschrift im arabischen Urtext, edited by C. F. Seybold (Hamburg, 1912).
John of Nikiu, The Chronicle of John Bishop of Nikiu, translated by R. H. Charles (London: Williams and Norgate, 1913).

📚 Scholarship:
Booth, P., ‘The Muslim Conquest of Egypt Reconsidered’ in Zuckerman, C. Constructing the Seventh Century, (Paris, 2013). 639-670.
Butler, A. J., The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Last Thirty Years of Roman Dominion, Reprint 1978 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1902).
Howard-Johnston, J., Witnesses to a World Crisis: Historians and Histories of the Middle East in the Seventh Century, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).

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  1. Also, Egyptians loved Amr Ibn Al Aas more than the Romans and the Egyptian people allied with him against the Romans and they were the key for all his victories against the Romans. Even Coptic Christians loved Amr a lot. They were his spies against the Romans and they were opening the gates to him, giving him secret locations. God rest his soul. He was a great man. He was kicked out of leadership of Egypt by Uthman rw because he was drunk on power and refuses to take jizya from the Christians and he was going on the way to take Egypt and separate it from the caliphate.

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